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Institute for Microelectronics and Microsystems (IMM) - Section of Bologna

Upper organisation
National Research Council (CNR) of Italy
Research Center

Via Gobetti 101
40129 Bologna BO


The Institute for Microelectronics and Microsystems (IMM) of the Italian National Research Council (CNR) is composed of 7 sections, located in Milan, Bologna, Rome, Napoli, Lecce and Catania. The Section of Bologna (IMM-BO) (, whose staff comprises more than 50 people (researchers, technicians, administrative staff), is a multi-disciplinary research center that has been working on the study of materials and devices for microelectronics and MEMS for over 30 years. Thanks to the synergy between physics, engineers and chemistry IMM-BO provides a global and flexible approach to the development of innovative technologies for application specific areas.

The institute can embrace a wide area of knowledge, spanning from material characterization to the study of technological processes and from the design and fabrication of integrated devices to their integration in high TRL systems.

IMM Bologna is equipped with a wide range of facilities for design, manufacture, characterization of devices, and for investigation of materials properties and processes, allowing a global approach to material science, microelectronics and MEMS research activities.

IMM-BO has the largest publicly funded facility for silicon micro-machining in Italy (located in a 500 m2 ISO 5-8 Clean Room), capable of producing different non-VLSI devices, in particular micro-electro-mechanical-systems (MEMS), 3rd generation solar cells and photovoltaic devices

Clean Room facility is mainly dedicated to the research and manufacture of microelectronics and MEMS devices, with possibility of carrying out a small-scale production of customized devices. Dedicated technologies have been developed for the manufacture of IR emitters, silicon thermopiles, bolometers, micro-hot plates, Single Photon Avalanche Detectors (SPAD), SiC diodes and MOSFETs, Mach-Zender interferometers based on LiNbO3, innovative photovoltaic cells, CNT structures, graphene-based structures, Silicon Photonic for DataCom application, Power Harvesting based on silicon nanowires, all-silicon micro gas chromatographs.

In addition and in synergic integration with the Silicon technologies, in IMM-BO research activities on carbon-based materials, like carbon nanotubes (CNTs), graphene are extensively carried out.

Structural and electrical diagnostic techniques have always played a crucial role in the research activity of IMM-BO, and the laboratory raised as a European excellence in the development and use of electron, ion and X-ray characterization techniques. The research activity in the structural characterization of materials focuses on electron crystallography, dopant profiling or development of imaging techniques for the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) and the low-energy scanning microscope (SEM). The laboratory is equipped to perform cryogenic TEM measurements on materials sensitive to radiation damage like graphenes or polymers.

Institute for Microelectronics and Microsystems (IMM) - Section of Bologna

Institute for Microelectronics and Microsystems (IMM) - Section of Bologna

Contact Person
Vittorio MORANDI

is SME contact

Technological Facilities & Equipments:

  • Ion Implantation (medium and high energy; different species)
  • Rapid Thermal Process (RTP) (Lamp; Si and SiC)
  • Ultra-High Temperature Annealing (RF; Si and SiC)
  • Furnace Treatments (dry and wet oxidation, annealing and doping)
  • Low Pressure Chemical Vapour Deposition (LPCVD) (polySi, silicon nitride, TEOS and LTO)
  • Catalytic Chemical Vapour Deposition (CNT and graphene)
  • Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition (SiC, a-Si, silicon nitride, doped microcrystalline Si)
  • Electron Beam Evaporation, Sputter Deposition
  • Etching Processes with Reactive Ion Etching (RIE) and Deep Reactive Ion Etching
  • Anisotropic Silicon Wet Etching
  • Optical and Deep-UV Lithography
  • Nano-Imprint UV-assisted
  • Electron Beam Lithography
  • Focused Ion Beam Etching and Lithography
  • Wafer Bonding (different types)
  • Wire Bonding (ultrasonic)
  • High Precision Dicing Saw. 

Structural Characterization:

  • Transmission Electron Microscopy (Tecnai F20 TEM/STEM, JEOL ARM200F remotely controlled)
  • Scanning Electron Microscopy (ZEISS Leo 1530, ZEISS Evo LS10)
  • X-ray Diffraction (Rigaku SmartLab)
  • Optical and Stylus Profilometry (SmartWLi Extended – GBS, Veeco Dektak 6M)

Physical Characterization:

  • Device and wafer-level parametric electrical characterization
  • Hall effect system
  • Optical benches for the characterization in free and guided propagation
  • Functional characterization of micromachined chemical and physical sensors
  • Functional testing of microfluidics microsystems
  • FTIR/NIR/FIR spectrophotometer
  • UV-visible spectrophotometer

For more information see:


Services and activities under contract are possible at IMM Bologna in the fields of Technological Processes, Structural Characterization and Sensors and Electrical Characterization.

  • Structural characterization by Electron Microscopy (SEM, TEM) and X-Rays scattering techniques
  • Design and Simulation
  • MEMS - Proof of concept fabrication
  • Customized MEMS sensors small-sale production
  • Packaging
  • Metrology and Electrical characterization
  • Optical characterization
  • Sensors and Microsystems Characterization
  • R&D support

The main facilities available and the related services, have been described above and are listed here:

Service for Industry and SMEs